Recent Research Articles In Managing Information Technology

International Journal of Managing Information Technology (IJMIT)

ISSN: 0975-5586 (Online); 0975-5926 (Print)


Chihiro Watanabe 1 ,2, Kuniko Moriya3, Yuji Tou4, Pekka Neittaanmäki5

1,5 Faculty of Information Technology,University of Jyväskylä, Finland

2 International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria

3 Research and Statistics Department, Bank of Japan, Tokyo, Japan

4 Dept. of Ind. Engineering & Magm., Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan


While the Internet-driven digitized innovation has provided us with extraordinary services and welfare, productivity in industrialized countries has been confronted with an apparent decline, and it has raised the question of a productivity paradox. The limitations of the GDP statistics in measuring the digital economy have become an important subject. Based on national accounting framework and utilizing the development trajectories of 500 global information and communication technology (ICT) firms, structural sources of such decline were investigated. It was identified the two-faced nature of ICT that resulting in R&D- intensive firms falling into a vicious cycle between R&D increase and marginal productivity of ICT decline. Confronting such circumstances, R&D-intensive firms have been  endeavoring to transform into disruptive business model by harnessing the vigor of soft innovation resources. This transformation leads to spontaneous creation of un captured GDP and provides insightful suggestion to overcome the limitation of the GDP statistics in the digital economy.


Digital economy, productivity decline, limitation of GDP, two-faced nature of ICT, bipolarization

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[2] Department of Broadband, “Communications and the Digital Economy (DBCDE)”, (2009) Digital Economy Future Directions, DBCDE, Camberra.

[3] OECD, (2016) “OECD Observer: The Digital Economy”, OECD, Paris.

[4] US Council on Competitiveness., (2016) No Recovery: An Analysis on Long-term U.S. Productivity Decline, Washington,  D.C.

[5] The World Bank, (2016) Digital Dividends, The World Bank, Washington D.C.

[6] Ahmad, N.& Schreyer, P., (2016)“Are GDP and Productivity Measures up to the Challenges of the Digital  Economy?”International Productivity Monitor, Vol. 30, Spring, pp 4-27.

[7] Moriya, K., (2017) “On the OECD/WPNA: Challenges to the Digital Economy in Official Statistics and Countries Reports on 2008SNA Issues, ”Quarterly Journal of National Accounts, Vol. 162, pp 61-78.

[8] International Monetary Fund (IMF), (2017) “Measuring the Digital Economy: IMF Statistical Forum.” IMF, Washington D.C.

[9] Solow. R., (1987) “We’d Better Watch Out, Review of S.S. Cohen and J. Zysman, Manufacturing Matters:  The Myth of the Post-industrial Economy,”New York Times Book Review, 36.

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[12] Cowen, T., (2011) The Great Stagnation, Penguin, New York.

[13] Brynjolfsson, E.& McAfee, A., (2011) “Race against the Machine. Digital Frontier”, Lexington, MA.

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[15] Lowrey, A., (2011) Freaks, Geeks, and GDP. Retrieved June 20, 2017, from

[16] Watanabe, C., Naveed, K .& Zhao, W., (2015)“New Paradigm of ICT Productivity: Increasing Role of Un-captured GDP and Growing Anger of Consumers,”Technology in Society, Vol.41, pp 21–44.

[17] Watanabe, C., Naveed, K.& Neittaanmäki, P., (2015) “Dependency on Un-captured GDP as a Source of Resilience beyond Economic Value in Countries with Advanced ICT Infrastructure: Similarities and Disparities between Finland and Singapore”,”Technology in Society,Vol. 42, pp 104–122.

[18] Watanabe, C., Naveed, K., Neittaanmäki, P. & Tou, Y., (2016) “Operationalization of Un-captured GDP: The Innovation Stream under New Global Mega-trends,”Technology in Society, Vol.45, pp 58–77.

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[27] Naveed, K., Watanabe, C. &Neittaanmäki, P., (2017) ‘The Transformative Direction of Innovation toward an IoT-based Society: Increasing Dependency on Un captured GDP in Global ICT Firms,” Technology in Society, Vol.53 (in print).

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[32] Watanabe, C., Naveed, K., Neittaanmäki, P. &Tou, Y., (2016) “Co-evolution of Three Mega Trends Nature Uncaptured GDP: Uber’s Ride-sharing Revolution,” Technology in Society, Vol.46, pp 164–185.

[33] Watanabe, C., Naveed, K., Neittaanmäki, P. & Fox, B., (2016)” Co-evolution between Trust in Teachers and Higher Education toward Digitally-rich Learning Environments,”Technology in Society, Vol.48, pp 70–96.

[34] Watanabe, C., (2013)  “Innovation-consumption Co-emergence Leads a Resilience Business”, “Innovation Supply Chain Management, Vol.7, No. 3, pp 92–104.

[35] Naveed, K., Watanabe, C. &Neittaanmäki, P., (2017) “Co-evolution between Streaming and Live Music Leads a Way to the Sustainable Growth of Music Industry: Lessons from the US Experiences,” Technology in Society, Vol.50, pp 1-19.

[36] Watanabe, C., Naveed, K. &Neittaanmäki, (2017) “ICT-driven Disruptive Innovation Nurtures Un captured GDP: Harnessing Women’s Potential as Untapped Resources,” Technology in Society, Vol.51, pp 81–101.

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Sitalakshmi Venkatraman

School of Engineering, Construction and Design (IT), Melbourne Polytechnic, Australia,


With the recent service enhancements over the Internet, organisations are confronted with a growing magnitude of security intrusions and attacks. Current intrusion detection strategies have not been effective in the long term, as new and obfuscated security attacks keep emerging evading the surveillance mechanisms. With information technology (IT) playing a pivotal role in today’s organizational operations and value creation, security  regulatory bodies have identified this situation not solely as a technology issue, rather due to the weakness of an organisation’s risk management practices and IT governance. Hence, recent attention has embarked on formulating proactive IT security governance for organisational sustenance. This paper proposes an autonomic framework for IT security governance that postulates a selflearning adaptive mechanism for an effective intrusion detection and risk management. Such a framework would facilitate autonomic ways of integrating existing context-dependent knowledge with new observed behaviour patterns gathered from network as well as host for detecting unknown security attacks effectively using mobile agents. In addition, this paper provides a roadmap for autonomic IT security governance by applying the proposed framework The roadmap employs a continuous improvement feedback loop. for achieving the targeted quality of service (QoS) in an organisation.


IT Security Governance, Intrusion Detection, Autonomic Framework, Self-learning & Mobile Agents

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[1] Lab K., (2015) “Kaspersky Security Bulletin,” Kaspersky Lab, Tech. Rep.

[2] Symantec, (2016) “Internet Security Threat Report: Trends for 2016,” Symantec, Tech. Rep. vol. 21, 81.

[3] McAfee Labs,“McAfee Labs Threats Report,” Intel Security, Tech. Rep., 03 2016.

[4] Microsoft, “Microsoft Security Intelligence Report,” Microsoft, Tech. Rep., 12 2015.

[5] HP Enterprise, “HPE Security Research Cyber Risk Report,” Hewlett Packard Enterprise, Tech. Rep., 2016.

[6] IBM X-Force, (2015) “IBM X-Force Threat Intelligence Report 2016,” IBM, Tech. Rep., 2016.

[7] Vasilomanolakis, E. Karuppayah, S. Mühlhäuser, M. and Fischer, M. “Taxonomy and Survey of Collaborative Intrusion Detection,” ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 55:1–55:33.

[8] Sommer R. and Paxson V., (2010) “Outside the Closed World: On Using Machine Learning for Network Intrusion Detection,” in Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy. IEEE Computer Society, pp. 305–316.

[9] Jang, J.-w. Yun, J. Mohaisen, A. Woo, J. and. Kim, H. K (2016) “Detecting and Classifying Method Based on Similarity Matching of Android Malware Behavior with Profile,” SpringerPlus, vol. 5, no.1, p. 1.

[10] Nguyen, A. Yosinski, J. and Clune, J. (2015) “Deep Neural Networks Are Easily Fooled: High Confidence Predictions for Unrecognizable Images,” The IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition.

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[12] Faruki, P. Bhandari S., Laxmi, V. Gaur M., and Conti, M. (2016) “DroidAnalyst: Synergic App Framework for Static and Dynamic App Analysis,” in Recent Advances in Computational Intelligence in Defense and Security. Springer, pp. 519–552.

[13] Li, W.-X. Wang, J.-B. Mu, D.-J. and Yuan, Y. (2011) “Survey on Android Rootkit,” Microprocessors, vol. 32. no.2, pp. 68-72.

[14] Kim, S. Park, J. Lee K., You, I. and Yim K., (2012) “A Brief Survey on Rootkit Techniques in Malicious Codes,” Journal of Internet Services and Information Security, vol. 2, no. 3/4, pp. 134–147.

[15] Lam, P. Wang L.-L., Ngan, H. Y. T. Yung, N. H. C. and Yeh, A. G.-O. (2015) “Outlier Detection In Large-Scale Traffic Data By Naïve Bayes Method and Gaussian Mixture Model Method,” arXiv.

[16] Yang, J. Deng, T. and Sui, R. (2015) “An Adaptive Weighted One-Class SVM for Robust Outlier Detection,” in Proceedings of the 2015 Chinese Intelligent Systems Conference. Springer, pp. 475–484.

[17] Pereira, G.V. Luciano, E. M. Macadar, M. A. and Daniel, V.M. (2013) “Information technology governance practices adoption through an institutional perspective: The perception of brazilian and american CIOs,” 46th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, pp. 4446–4455.

[18] Turel O. and Bart, C. (2014) “Board-level IT governance and organizational performance,” Eur. J. Inf. Syst., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 223–239.

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[26] Bartens, Y ., Schulte, F., & Vos, S. (2014). “E-Business IT Governance Revisited: An Attempt towards Outlining a Novel Bi-directional Business/IT Alignment in COBIT5“, Paper presented at the 47th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), 2014.

[27] Chou, Y.-C., Chuang, H. H.-C., & Shao, B. B. M. (2014). “The impacts of information technology on total factor productivity: A look at externalities and innovations. International Journal of Production Economics, 158, 290-299.

[28] ISO/IEC 38500, (2015) “Information Technology – Governance of IT for the organization ISO/IEC 38500:2015, 2nd Edition, ISO:Switzerland.

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[31] Kephart, J. and Chess, D. M. (2003) “The vision of autonomic computing, IEEE Computer, vol. 36, 1, pp. 41-50.

[32] Ganek, A. G. and Corbi, T. A. (2003) “The Dawning of the Autonomic Computing Era“. IBM Systems Journal. vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 5-18.

[33] Dudley, G., Joshi, N., Ogle, D.M., Subramanian, B. and Topol, B.B. (2004) “Autonomic self-healing systems in a cross-product IT environment, Proceedings of the International Conference on Autonomic Computing), 312-313.

[34] Dobson, S. Sterritt, R. Nixon, P. and Hinchey. M. (2010) “Fulfilling the vision of autonomic computing“. Computer, vol. 43, pp. 35-41.

[35] Vidales, P., Baliosian, J., Serrat, J., Mapp,G., Stajano, F. and Hopper, A. (2005) “Autonomic System for Mobility Support in 4G Networks“. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications. vol. 23,12, pp. 2288-2304.

[36] Sancho G., Villemur T. and Tazi S., (2010) “An Ontology-driven Approach for Collaborative Ubiquitous Systems”, International Journal of Autonomic Computing (IJAC) InderScience Publishers Mai pp 263 – 279.

[37] Cabri, G., Leonardi, L. and Zambonelli, F. (2002) “Engineering Mobile Agent Applications Via Context- Dependent Coordination“. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering. vol. 28, no. 11, pp.40-1058.

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[39] Alizadeh, H. Khoshrou A., and Zúquete, A. (2015) “Traffic Classification and Verification using Unsupervised Learning of Gaussian Mixture Models,” in International Workshop on Measurements & Networking. IEEE.

[40] Venkatraman, S. (2010) “Self-Learning Framework for Intrusion Detection”, Proceedings of The 2010 International Congress on Computer Applications and Computational Science (CACS 2010), 4- December, Singapore, pp. 517-520

[41] Cui, T., Ye, H., Teo, H. H., & Li, J. (2015) “Information technology and open innovation: A strategic alignment perspective“. Information & Management, vol. 52, pp. 348-358.

[42] Yu, S. Guo, S. andStojmenovic, I. (2015) “Fool Me if You Can: Mimicking Attacks and Anti-Attacks in Cyberspace,” IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 139–151.


Sita Venkatraman is currently the Information Technology Lecturer and Discipline Leader  for Business Information Systems at the School of Engineering, Construction & Design, Melbourne Polytechnic, Australia. She earned her PhD in Computer Science, with a doctoral thesis titled “Efficient  Parallel Algorithms for Pattern Recognition”, from National Institute of Industrial Engineering in 1993. In the past 25 years, Sita’s work experience involves both industry and  academics  –  developing  turnkey projects  for  IT industry and teaching a variety of IT courses for tertiary institutions, in India, Singapore, New Zealand, and more recently in Australia since 2007. Her recent research areas are predominantly in Business Intelligence, Data Mining, Cloud Computing and Information Security. Sita has published eight book chapters and more than 100 research papers in internationally well-known refereed journals and conferences. She also serves as Member of Register of Experts at Australia’s Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency (TEQSA).


Obaidat and M. A. Otair Amman Arab University, Jordan


The study aimed at identifying the impact of knowledge management on the function of employee performance appraisals (it is one of the most important functions of human resources management) in Jordanian industrial public shareholding companies, relying on the descriptive analytical approach. A questionnaire has been developed and distributed on individuals of the study sample consisting of managers of departments and sections of human resources in each company. The number of questionnaire retrieved and valid for statistical analysis (294) representing (86.5%) of the distributed questionnaires. In order to analyze the study sample, reliance was placed on descriptive statistics, represented in the arithmetic means and standard deviations, in addition to the multiple linear regression analysis in hypothesis testing. The study reached a number of findings, most importantly, the presence of statistically significant impact at the level of (α=0.05) for the knowledge management including its dimensions (knowledge generation, knowledge storage, knowledge sharing, knowledge application) on the function of employee performance appraisals in Jordanian industrial public shareholding companies. The study has recommended that the Jordanian industrial public shareholding companies should follow an efficient evaluation system capable of identifying the employees’ weaknesses.


Human resources management, Knowledge Management, Employee Performance Appraisals, Industrial Companies

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[1] Aishoush, R. (2009). “Knowledge Management and Strategy in Business Organizations”. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Mohammed Khaydar University, Biskra, Algeria.

[2] Al-Deeb E. (2010). Knowledge Management, Cairo, Egypt: The Arab Open Academy.

[3] Al-kbaisi, S. (2011). Knowledge Management, Cairo-Egypt, Arab Organization for Administrative Development.

[4] Al-Mudallal, A. (2012). “The application of knowledge management in Palestinian governmental institutions and their impact on the level of performance”. Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis, Islamic University, Palestine.

[5] Al-Salem, M. and Saleh, A. (2003). Human Resource Management Strategic Approach. Amman Jordan, World of Modern Books for Publishing and Distribution.

[6] Altaweel, A. and Rasheed, H. (2005). “The Impact of Information Technology on Knowledge Management Processes”. Future Research Journal. Iraq, Issue 10.

[7] Al-Yaseri, A. and Hussien, D. (2012). “The Impact of Knowledge Management and Organizational Learning Processes on Strategic Performance An exploratory study of the views of a sample of administrative leaders at the universities of the Middle Euphrates”. Iraq, Qadisiyah Journal of Administrative and Economic Sciences, Vol (14), Issue (1).

[8] Al-zyadat, M. (2008). “Contemporary Trends in Knowledge Management”, 1st Edition, AmmanJordan, Dar Al Safa for Publishing and Distribution.

[9] Bukowitz, W. and Williams, R. (2000), The Knowledge Management Fieldbook, London: Prentice Hall

[10] Darwazeh, S. (2008). “The Relationship between Knowledge Management Requirements and Processes and their Impact on the Performance Excellence of Organizations”. Unpublished PhD Thesis. Jordan, Middle East University.

[11] Grover, V., and Davenport, T. (2001). General Perspectives on Knowledge Management. Journal of Management Information System, vol. 18, No. (1), pp. 5-21.

[12] Hmoud, K. (2010). Knowledge Organization, 1st Edition, Amman-Jordan, Al-Ahliyyah for Publishing & Distribution.

[13] Nickols, F. (2000). “Knowledge in Knowledge Management.” Knowledge Management Yearbook, Butterworth-Heinemann: Boston.

[14] Rollett, H. (2003), Knowledge management processes and technologies, Kluwer, Norwell.

[15] Sakeenah, M. and Abu Sin, A. (2013). “Analysis of the reality of human resources strategy and its impact on performance in Sudanese telecommunications companies: Case Study of Sudan Telecom Company Limited. Journal of Economic Sciences, Vol. 14, Issue 1.

[16] Sekaran, U. (2003) “Research Methods for Business: A Skill-Building Approach. 4th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York.

[17] Uriarte, A. (2008). Introduction to Knowledge Management, Jakarta, Indonesia: Asean Foundation.

[18] Wiig, K. (1993). Knowledge management foundations: thinking about thinking. How people and organizations create, represent and use knowledge. Arlington, TX: Schema Press.

[19] Wilkesmann, U., Wilkesmann, M., and Virgillito, A. (2007). Requirements for Knowledge Transfer in Hospitals How Can Knowledge Transfer be Supported in Hospitals?. Discussion papers des.

[20] Zweilef, M. (2001). Human Resource Management, Amman-Jordan, Dar AlFiker for printing, publishing and distribution


AKM Bahalul Haque

Depart of Electrical and Computer Engineering North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh


Cyber security is one of the burning issues in modern world. Increased IT infrastructure has given rise to enormous chances of security breach. Bangladesh being a relatively new member of cyber security arena has its own demand and appeal. Digitalization is happening in Bangladesh for last few years at an appreciable rate. People are being connected to the worldwide web community with their smart devices. These devices have their own vulnerability issues as well as the data shared over the internet has a very good chances of getting breached. Common vulnerability issues like infecting the device with malware, Trojan, virus are on the rise. Moreover, a lack of proper cyber security policy and strategy might make the existing situation at the vulnerable edge of tipping point. Hence the upcoming new infrastructures will be at a greater risk if the issues are not dealt with at an early age. In this paper common vulnerability issues including their recent attacks on cyber space of Bangladesh, cyber security strategy and need for data privacy policy is discussed  and analysed briefly.


CyberSecurity, Cyberdefence, Security Policy, Vulnerability, Cyber Threat, Security Strategy

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[1] “Internet Subscribers in Bangladesh December, 2018. | BTRC.” [Online]. Available:[Accessed: 25-Nov 2018].

[2] C. Team, “Common Vulnerabilities in Cyber Space of Bangladesh,” BGD e-GOV CIRT | Bangladesh e-Government Computer Incident Response Team.

[3] “Cyber warfare: Our Achilles’ heel?, Dhaka Tribune, 17-Dec-2017. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 23-Nov-2019].

[4] B. Dickson, “What is blockchain?,” TechTalks, 07-Sep-2016. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 3-Jan-2019].

[5] B. Dickson, “How blockchain can improve cybersecurity,” TechTalks, 11-Jan-2017. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 3-Dec-2019].

[6] “How blockchain can help fight cyber attacks | TechCrunch.” [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 3-Jan 2019].

[7] “What is Blockchain Technology? A Step-by-Step Guide For Beginners.” [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 23-Jan-2019].

[8] National Cyber Security Strategy”, ICT Division, Govt. of People’s Republic of Bangladesh. Available: . [Accessed: 2-Jan-2019]

[9] “Personal Data,” General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR).

[10] “GDPR Personal Data and Sensitive Personal Data.” [Online]. Available:[Accessed: 10-Jan-2019].

[11] “Digital Security Act” Act No 46 of the Year 2018, Govt. of People republic of Bangladesh. Available: . [Accessed: 20-Dec-2019].

[12] “Official Secrets Act, 1923 (Act No. XIX of 1923).” [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 23-Nov-2019].

[13] “General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) – Final text neatly arranged,” General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 20-Dec-2019].

[14] “(Haque, A K M Bahalul. (2019).Big-Brother-In-1984-The-Modern-Era-Surveillance. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research. 8. 186-190.

[15] “BGD e-GOV CIRT | Bangladesh e-Government Computer Incident Response Team |.” [Online].Available: /. [Accessed: 05-Feb-2019].


AKM Bahalul Haque is currently working a Lecturer of Department of ECE, North South University, Bashundhara, and Dhaka 1229. He has achieved is M.Sc. In Information Technology from Fachhochschule Kiel, Germany, 2018. He achieved his Bachelor of Science (Engineering) in Computer Science and telecommunication engineering in 2014. Has published two of his papers in International Journal. He specializes in Cyber Security, Cloud Computing, Data Privacy and protection. He has one-year experience as Security Engineer and one-year experience as Vulnerability Detection Consultant in Cyber Security Division.


Elshimaa Badr Eldin Hago1 Maria Emmalyn Asuncion De Vigal Capuno2 And Salah Hassan Malik Ali3

Faculty of Information Technology, Future University Sudan, Khartoum, Sudan


IT Service Management System is an application to implement and manage Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) best practices framework. This framework aims to align the IT services with the business needs by insuring the quality of services provided to business. This IT service Management system links people, processes and technology within the Central Bank of Sudan as the main site of the project. The Central Bank of Sudan is the main bank that governs Sudan’s banks rules and regulations. The bank was formed in 1960 with headquarters located in the Khartoum capital of Sudan in addition to eighteen (18) branches spread throughout the country. The Information Technology Administration within the Central Bank of Sudan manage and operate the IT infrastructure that host and support all systems that used internally and for external banks. The objective of this study focused on finding IT service management system that can support international IT service management platform that can apply ITIL standard processes like Incident Management, Service Request Management, Problem Management, Change Request Management, Configuration Management Database and Knowledge Management. The methodology used in this system is the Rapid Application Development (RAD), a condensed development process that produces a high quality system with low investment costs. The proposed system went through to alpha, beta and acceptability tests by IT development team first and second line of support agents to ensure proper module functionality with favorable results. The study concluded in align services provided by the Information system department with business need through manageable and controllable standard. As a recommendation, the system should be implemented at the Central Bank of Sudan. More integrations and benchmarking must be done to ensure modules functionalities and higher security. The system can be the first step to take ISO20000 certificate as it covers many of IS020000 requirements.


IT Service Management System, Information Technology Infrastructure Library, Rapid Application Development Methodology, Change Management

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[1]. Ada Hui-Chuan Chen. (2010). Issues In Implementing Information Technology Service Management, Department of Management Information Systems, National Chengchi University, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C

[2]. Ahmed TahaMirgani Ahmed.(2017). Enterprise Resources Planning System with Virtual Desktop Infrastructure for Alsaid Mills, Sudan. Master thesis for Master of Science in Information Systems. Future University Sudan.

[3]. Ali AbdellatifAlhajKhogali. (2018). “Knowledge Based Employee Management System for Al-Majdi Plastic Products Factory”, Sudan. Master thesis for Master of Science in Information Systems. Future University Sudan.

[4]. BananYahiaMursiIdris. (2017). E-Service System for Faculty of Post Graduate Studies for Future University, Sudan. Master thesis for Master of Science in Information Systems. Future University Sudan.

[5]. Barclay Rae, President, itSMF UK (IT Service Management Forum International). (2017). Impact of IT Service management systems, IT Service Management Survey 2017 results

[6]. British Standard ISO/IEC 20000-1. (2011). Information Technology – Service management supersedes BS ISO/IEC 20000-1:2005, BS ISO/IEC 20000 Foundation Handouts.

[7]. Fatemeh Arabalidousti, RaminNasiri and MahsaRazaviDavoudi.(2014). “Developing a New Architecture to Improve ITSM on Cloud Computing Environment”, Islamic Azad University, Iran. International Journal on Cloud Computing: Services and Architecture, Volume: 4 – volume Number: 1

[8]. Pankesh Patel, AjithRanabahu, AmitSheth.(2009). “Service Level Agreement in Cloud Computing”. (2009) No. 24(2), pp. 6-14.

[9]. Wassermann, B.; Ludwig, H.; Laredo, J.; Bhattacharya, K.; Pasquale, L. (2009). “Distributed cross domain change management”. Paper presented at the IEEE International Conference on Web.

[10]. Yassin Mohamed Alamin. (2017). “E-Governance for the Community Development Funds Projects for Ministry of Finance and National Economy” Sudan, Sudan. Master Thesis for Master of Science in Information Systems. Future University Sudan.